PROPERTIES/CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPECIMEN A
1. It has sticky and mouldy particles when wet.
2. There particles are fone power and smooth when dry.
3. It support water logging.
4. It has high water holding capacity .
5. It is poorly aerated .
6. The particles are tightly bound together with little pure (air) 8
IMPORTANCE/USES OF SPECIMEN A
1. It is the best soil for establishment of fish ponds.
2. It is also used for moulding of mud pots.
3. It can also be used for other agribusiness activities such as forest
4. It is also used for the building of houses.
NOTE: 1. Soil texture is the relative properties of sand,silt and clay
in the soil.
2. Soil structure is the percentage or proportion of different soil
seperated in a given soil sample .
Specimen B is a sandy soil because it has the proportions of sand
PROPERTIES / XTERS OF SPECIMEN B
1. It is coarse granied and gritty .
2. It does not support water logging .
3. It is not sticky when wet.
4. It absorbs and loses water easily .
5. It contains low nutrients.
METHODS OF IMPROVING SPECIMEN B & A
1. By mulching
2. by planting of cover crops.
3. Avoid bush burning .
4. Application of manure .
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN B
1. It is useful in building construction.
2. It is good for the cultivation of few crops such as
3. It is also use for the production of glasses and ceramics.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN A & B.
1. They all have soil samples
2. They are used for agricultural purposes .
3. They all consists of soil micro organism.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPECIMEN A & B
Under specimen A
1. It support water logging .
2. It has highly water holding capacity .
3. It is poorly aerated
4. it does not support beaching .
5. It does not lose water easily .
Under specimen B
1. It does not support water logging .
2. It has low water holding capacity .
3. It is well aerated
4. it support beaching
5. it loses water easily .
DETERMINATION OF THE TEXT OF SPECIMEN A & B.
1. By feeling
4. hydrometer method
5. by sedimentation .
COMPONENTS OF SPECIMEN A & B
2. Soil micro-organisms
4. Mineral salts
SPECIMEN C = MILLIPEDE
specimen C is millipede
xters/features of specimen C
1. Possession of body segments.
2. Possession OF jointed legs.
3. Presence of antenna
4. possession of stink gland spores .
*Kingdom of specimen C is Animelia .
*phylum of specimen C is Arthropida .
*class of specimen C is Insecta .
*family of specimen C is diplopoda .
ECONOMIC. IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN C
1. It reduces the market value of food crops such as yam .
2. It is medicinal in nature .
3. It mixed organic matters and the soil together .
4. It is also used for scientific research purposes.
SPECIMEN = D
specimen D is cow dung .
SOURCES OF SPECIMEN D
5. Birds (fowl )
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN. D
1. It returns nutrients to the soil.
2. It also improves soil structure and texture .
3. It prevents soi erosion .
4. It encourages the activities of soil micro-organisms .
5. A source of income .
6. It has buffering effects on the soil.
1. The drugs from poultry is richer than all dungs from other
farm animals followed by the dungs from rabbit .
CHARACTERISTICS / FEATURES OF SPECIMEN D
1. It is a farm yard manure .
2. It consists of macro-nutrients such as nitrogen , phosphorus
3. It is a by-product of farm animals .
4. It enriches the soil.
5. It consists of dead organic matters.
Specimen E is urea fertilizer.
XTERS /FEATURES OF SPECIMEN E
1. It is a single fertilizer .
2. It is a chemical or inorganic fertilizer .
3. It consists of nitrogen .
4. Specimen E is a white crystalline substance with the chemical
5. it is highly water soluble .
Other examples of single or straight fertilizers are:
1. Ammonia liquor
2. potassium nitrate
3. sodium nitrate
4. calcium ammonium nitrate
5. aluminum nitrate
6. ammonium sulphate
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN E
1. A source of income
2. It returns nutrients to the soil.
3. It also help to improve soil structure and texture .
4. It also help to improved soil micro-organisms.
SOURCES OF SPECIMEN E
1. From animals urine
2. from animals dungs
3. from ammonia compounds.
specimen F is N.P.K 15,15,15.
XTERS / FEATURES OF SPECIMEN F.
1. It is a compound fertilizer .
2. It consists of nitrogen ,phosphorus and potassium .
3. It is a chemical / inorganic fertilizer .
4. It is highly water soluble .
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN. F.
1. It is poisonous when eaten.
2. It is a good source of income .
3. It improved the nutrient availability of the soil.
4. They increases soil pH .
5. Specimen F also help to increase crop yield .
Uses of specimen D,E and F in agriculture .
1. They improve the structure of the soil.
2. They also improve soil aeration .
3. They also help to increase the yield of crops .
4. They increase the fertility of the soil.
5. They also increase the activities Of soil organisms .
6. They also increase the growth Of planktons in the fish ponds.
METHODS OF APPLYING SPECIMEN D,E and F.
1. Top dressing
2. by row or side placement
3. by broadcasting
4. by ring method
5. by folial spray
OTHER FORMS OF N.P.K are :
1. N.P.K 20-5-10
2. N.P.K 5-10-5
3. N.P.K 10-2010
NOTES : 1. Specimen F has a ratio of 1:1:1 of
N,meaning equal amount of nitrogen ,phosphorus and potassium
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN D,E and F.
„1¤7 They are fertilizers.
„1¤7 They all improves soil fertility.
„1¤7 They consists of Nitrogen
Differences between specimen D and E.
under Specimen D
1. Specimen D is an animal dung .
2. It is obtained from animal feaces
under specimen E
1. Specimen E is urea fertilizer .
2. It is obtained from animal urine .
DIfference between specimen E and F
Under specimen E
1. Specimen E is a urea fertilizer .
2. It is a single fertilizer .
3. It is consists of mainly nitrogen .
under Specimen F
1. specimen F is N.P.K 15-15-15.
2. it is a compound fertilizer .
3. it is consists of nitrogen ,phosphorus and potassium .
Specimen G is water and It occupied about two-third of pures spaces.
IMPORTANCE/USES OF SPECIMEN G
1. It serves as food.
2. It is necessary for plant growth and government .
3. It help to sustains life.
4. It also aid for digestion of food substance .
5. It is also used in industries and domestic homes.
6. It also help in photosynthesis in green plants.
7. It also used for irrigation .
SOURCES OF SPECIMEN G
TYPES OF SOIL WATER
1. Gravitational water
2. surface water
3. Capillary water
4. hydroscopic water
specimen H is shears which is similar in shape to a pair of scissors
but it is much larger than scissors .
USES OF SPECIMEN H
1. It is used for trimming hedges .
2. It is also used for pruning .
3. It can be used for cutting flowers
MAINTENANCE OF SPECIMEN H
1. Store in a cool,dry place .
2. Sharpen the blades property.
3. Keep away from rain to prevent rusting .
4. Clean or wash after use.
XTERS OF SPECIMEN H
1. it has a scissors shape structure .
2. Possession of two short metal blades.
3. Possession of bolt and nut .
4. Possession of two wooden handles.
5. Possession of spring between the handles.
Specimen I is a sickle with a curved blade fitted to a short handle .
Uses of specimen I
1. It is used cutting grass pasture for animals .
2. It is used for harvesting fruits and cereal crops .
3. It is also used for weeding .
MAINTENANCES OF SPECIMEN I
1. Sharpen the inner edge/blade regularly.
2. Store in a cool ,dry place .
3. Oil the metal parts before storage .
4. Keep away from rain to avoid rusting .
XTERS OF SPECIMEN I
1. Possession of curved blade
2. presence of short handle .
3. It consists of metal and wood.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN H AND I
1. Both consists of metals.
2. Both consists of woody handle .
3. They consists of sharp blade .
4. Both are farm tools .
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPECIMEN H AND I.
under specimen H
1. It is a shears.
2. Possession of pairs of metals.
3. It is a scissors shape in nature
4. it is used for pruning and trimming of plants.
Under specimen I
1. It is a sickle
2. possession of on metal .
3. It is sickle shape in nature
4. it is used for harvesting of fruits and cereals crops
specimen J is a knapsack sprayer .
Other types of sprayers are :-
„1¤7 Tractor -mounted prayer
„1¤7 Helicopter mounted prayer
„1¤7 Hard gun sprayer
„1¤7 motorized sprayer .
USES/FUNCTIONS OF SPECIMEN J
1. It is used for irrigation
2. It is also used for spraying of liquid fertilizers and pesticides.
3. It is also used to control the growth of weeks through the use of
4. It is also used to control insects through the use of insecticides.
Xters OF specimen J
1. Possession of nozzle.
2. Possession of pump handle .
3. Possession of plastic container.
4. Possession. Of flexible pipe.
5. Presence of extension pipe .
MAINTENANCE OF SPECIMEN J
1. Operate the specimen according to instructions given.
2. Rinse the specimen properly with water immediately after any use to
get rid of left-over chemicals.
3. Turn the specimen upside-down after use or cleaning .
4. Clean the nozzle and rinse with water .
5. Store in a cool,dry place .
Specimen K is a wheel-barrow with a large metal or wooden container
with one wheel at the front .
USES/FUNCTIONS OF SPECIMEN K
1. It is used for carrying farm inputs such as fertilizers etc.
2. It is also used to carry loads to the market .
3. It is also used for transplanting seedlings .
4. It is also used for carrying farm outputs such as harvested
crops,slaughter animals etc
MAINTENANCE OF SPECIMEN K
1. Store in cool ,dry place .
2. Replace worn-out parts.
3. Paint the tool if necessary to avoid rusting .
4. Clean the tool after use.
5. Tighten bolts and nuts on wheels properly .
XTERS OF SPECIMEN K
1. Possession of one front wheel
2. possession of two handles.
3. It is used for carrying loads
4. possession of tyre .
OTHER FARM TOOLS THAT CAN PERFORM THE SAME FUNCTION AS SPECIMEN K ARE :-
1. Head pan
3. Tractor-mounted container
4. container driven by work animals .
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN J AND K ARE :-
1. Both are used for carrying farm inputs ;such as fertilizers.
2. Both are land operators
3. Both consists of handle .
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN H,I,J AND K ARE :-
1. They have handle
2. they consists of metal parts.
3. They are hard operators.
4. They are farm tools .
Specimen L is tridax which belong to the family of cypsels .
.Botanical/scientific name of specimen L = Tridax precumbem
. method of dispersal = by wind
. method of propagation = by seed (that is sexual propagation).
. Types of fruit of specimen L IS simple dry indehiscent fruit .
OTHER FRUITS THAT CAN BE DISPERSED BY WIND ARE:-
„1¤7 goat weed
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN L
1. Possession of pappus .
2. Presence of hairly pericarp with seed.
3. It is dispersed by wind
4. the fruit has trianglar structure .
5. Possession of hard seed coat.
– specimen M is a carpet grass.
– Botanical name/scientific name of specimen M is Axonopus Compressure .
– Method of dispersal of specimen M is by animals.
– Propagation of M is by vegetative parts (ASEXUAL PROPAGATION).
XTERS OF SPECIMEN M
1. Possession of roots
2. It is a creeping type of grass
3. It is a perennial plant
4. the stem have the tendency to root at the nodes.
5. Possession of nodes .
6. It is very aggressive and not nutritive .
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN M.
1. it helps to check erosion .
2. It is also used for decoration of homes.
3. It is mainly planted in the football pitches.
4. It is a good source of income .
Specimen N is water leaf plant .
„1¤7 Kingdom = plantea kingdom
„1¤7 Division = spermatophyts
„1¤7 class = Angiosperm
„1¤7 Botanical name/scientific name is Talinum Triangular .
XTERS/FEATURES /STRUCTURAL ADAPTATION OF SPECIMEN N.
1. Possession of tap root system
2. possession of succulent leaves .
3. Possession of root hairs .
4. Presence of stem
5. presence of nodes and inter-nodes .
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN N
1. It serves as food .
2. A good source of income .
3. A good source of victims and minerals .
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN N AND O..
1. Both have nodes.
2. Both are green plants.
3. Both consists of stem and leaves .
4. Both produces flowers .
5. Both have succulent stem.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPECIMEN N AND O
under Specimen N
1. Presence of tap root system .
2. Broad leaf tip.
3. Possession of petiole ..
4. It is a dicot .
1. Fabros root system present .
2. Pointed leaf tip.
3. Absence of people
4. It is . monocot .
Specimen p is a saw dust.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN P (EFFECTS OF P)
1. A good source of income
2. it is used in the poultry houses.
3. It is also used in some industries for making of books and other
4. It also perform the some function as fine wood.
5. It increases the nutrient contents of the soil when decayed .
6. Specimen P habour pesis and diseases.
7. It causes pollution is the environment.
XTERS/FEATURES OF SPECIMEN P
1. It consists of fine particles of wood dust.
2. It is light and can be carried by air.
3. Specimen P is mainly obtained from plants.
„1¤7 Sources of specimen P is all vascular plants .
Specimen Q is round worm with an elongated and cylindrical body .
XTERS/FEATURES OF SPECIMEN Q
1. It is elongated
2. specimen Q is cylindrical in nature.
3. Possession of two pointed end.
4. It is a hermaphrodite .
5. Possession of mouth and anus.
6. It is an endoparasite .
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN Q
1. It causes indigestion and conscription.
2. The effects results in loss of appappetite ,weakness and may lead to
3. It reduces the growth of host animal.
4. The effect may affect the respiratory organ of the host .
5. It reduces the blood of the host.
Animals affected by specimen Q are :-
LIFE CYCLE OF SPECIMEN Q
CONTROL OF SPECIMEN Q
1. The pig should be dewormed with piperazine drugs.
2. Good sanitation OF environmen should be maintained
3. proper feeding of the farm animal.
4. Disinfectation of animal houses .
5. Proper rotational grazing .
. Kingdom of specimen Q is Animelis
.phylum. = Annalida
. Examples of specimen Q are :- Ascaris ,guinea worm etc
. Botanical/scientific name of ascaris is ASCARIS LUBRICOIDES .
Specimen R is a bird .
. Kingdom = Anemelia
. phylum = cordats
.sub-phylum = vertebrats
. Class = Aves
GENERAL XTERS OF SPECIMEN R
1. Possession of beak
2. Possession of feathers
3. possession of claws
4. possession of scales
5. Absence of teeth in their mouth .
6. Possession of A pair of walking legs.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN R
1. The feather of specimen R can be used for decoration.
2. It can also be used for making pillows.
3. Specimen R reduces the market value of food crops.
4. It is a disease vector .
5. A good source of food and meat.
FUNCTIONS OF PARTS OF SPECIMEN R MENTIONED.
1. BEAK = for picking of grains
2. FEATHER = for flight ,protection and regulation of body temperature .
3. SCALES = It protect the body from bacteria infection .
4. CLAWS. = it is used for food or for capturing of preys .
TYPES OF FEATHERS OF SPECIMEN R
1. Quill feather
2. Convert/contoure feather
3. down feather
4. filoplume feather
GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF FEATHER
1. It function as an insulation .
2. For incubation of eggs.
3. For identification of sex
4. For courtship display
5. it gives shape .
DISEASES OF SPECIMEN R
2. Now castle diseases.
3. Ringworm disease
COMPONENTS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF SPECIMEN R
PROCESS OF EGG FORMATIONS
OVARY :- is the position where eggs(ova ) are produced before they are
moved down to the infundiblum .
INFUNDIBLUM :In the fundiblum fertilization of eggs takes place
MAGNUM :- is the part where albumen and chalaza are formed
ISTHMUS :- is where the two shell membranes are formed and the shape of
the egg is also formed in this region.
INTERUS :- is also known as the shell gland and it is where the shell
is formed from calcium carbonate screted by the wall of interus .
VAGIUS :- it is where the egg stayed for some minutes before it is laid
through the cloaca .
BY-PRODUCTS OF SPECIMEN R
2. faeces (dungs )
PARTS OF ALIMENTARY CANAL OR DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF SPECIMEN R AND THEIR
1. BEAK :- for picking of grains .
2. OESOPHAGUS :- for easy passage of food materials.
3. CROP :- for temporary storage of food material (stuff ).
4. PREVERTRICULUS :- It prevents food in the crop from going out.
5. GIZZARD :- for granding of food (ie. It function as teeth)
6. INTESTINE :- for absorption of food.
Specimen S is a liver of a ruminant animal .
ANIMALS (organisms ) where specimen S can be found are :-
FUNCTIONS OF SPECIMEN S
1. For formation of red blood cells in foetus .
2. For production of bile
3. for deamination of protein .
4. For regulation of blood sugar.
5. It also help for detoxification of poisonous and toxic substances in
the body .
6. For storage of iron .
DISEASES OF SPECIMEN S
1. Gall stones
2. infective hepatitis
3. cirrhosis of the liver
4. diabetes mellitus
EFFECTS OF DISEASES OF SPECIMEN S
1. Loss of weight
2. general weakness of the body.
3. It leads to inability to digest food properly .
4. It may lead to death
5. it also lead to loss of appetite .
Specimen T is a heart of a ruminant animal.
ORGANISMS (ANIMALS ) WHERE SPECIMEN T CAN BE FOUND ARE :-
FUNCTIONS OF SPECIMEN T
1. It helps to pump blood round the body of the ruminant animals .
2. It also help in blood circulation .
3. It also help in transportation of materials.
CHAMBERS OF SPECIMEN T
Specimen T is divided into four chambers which are :-
1. Right auricle
2. Left auricle
3. Right vertricle
4. Left. Vertricle
The beat of specimen T occurs in two stages which are :-
IMPORTANCE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
1. It circulates nutrients to the body tissues.
2. It removes waste products from the body tissues.
3. it assists in the distribution of oxygen .
4. It consists of white blood cells which help in combating diseases.